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Basic Understanding about Type 2 Diabetes.



Type 2 diabetes is the most common diabetes form. It is a chronic medical condition and this is a common problem due to the level of sugar in the blood rises very high.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in older people, but it can occur in younger people, and sometimes even in children. Symptoms in type 2 diabetes depend on the amount of sugar in the blood.

This can cause symptoms such as excessive thirst, frequent urination, laziness, fatigue, sleepiness, blurred vision, increased appetite, and rapid weight loss.

It is not possible to completely cure type 2 diabetes, but it can be controlled and maintained with the help of some types of treatment.

By keeping type 2 diabetes under control, the patient leads a healthy and active life. Most people control type 2 diabetes by eating healthy food, exercising and periodically checking for blood sugar.

But some people also have to take medicines to control diabetes. Due to high levels of sugar in the blood, some serious problems develop over time like- heart, kidney, veins, eyes etc.

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.

In type 2 diabetes, our body is unable to use insulin effectively to bring glucose to the cells. It can develop very slowly in our body. Many people do not feel any symptoms in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, type 2 diabetes is often detected only when examining another disease. Symptoms of this type of disease develop slowly over time. Some common and early Symptoms include:

  • Extreme thirst and hunger
  • Frequent urination problem
  • Lose weight
  • Blurred vision
  • Dry mouth
  • Feeling tired all the time
  • Lack of energy
  • Itchy skin
  • Feel dizzy
  • Leg cramps
  • Itching around genitals

As the disease progresses over time, its symptoms become even more severe and dangerous.

If your blood sugar level is high over a long period of time, the following symptoms may also include:

  • yeast infection.
  • Slow healing cuts.
  • Dark spots on the skin.
  • foot ache
  • Feeling of numbness, or neuropathy

If you notice two or more of these symptoms, you should consult your doctor immediately. Without treatment, diabetes can become life-threatening.

Causes of Type-2 Diabetes.

In the body of a healthy person, the pancreas makes insulin, with the help of which the body collects and uses the sugar it receives from food. Type 2 diabetes often occurs due to the following conditions:

When the pancreas stops making insulin. When the pancreas produces a very small amount of insulin and the body is unable to produce as much insulin as is necessary.

In such a situation, sugar starts accumulating in the blood instead of going into the cells. When the body does not react to insulin properly, this condition is called “Insulin resistance”.

When glucose accumulates in the blood rather than in the cells, it causes damage to many parts of the body. The cells do not function properly if they do not get insulin as per requirement.

When does the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increase?

There are some factors that increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, such as:

Age: As you get older, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases, the risk of it usually starts increasing after the age of 45 years. This is because after this age people often reduce exercise etc., due to which the muscles start to become weak and gain weight. But type 2 diabetes can occur in young people, adolescents, and even children.

Weight: Overweight gain is the most common risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The fattier (fatty) your tissue is, the more insulin resistant your cells become. However, it is not necessary that type 2 diabetes occurs only when there is obesity.

Family problem: If any of your parents or siblings have type 2 diabetes, then you are also at increased risk of getting this disease.

Fat accumulation in the stomach: If your body fat is accumulating more in the stomach than in the hips or thighs, then there is an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Lack of mobility in the body: The less physically active you are, the greater your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. With the help of physical activity, the body uses glucose as energy, which makes your cells sensitive to insulin. By doing physical activity, your body weight is also normal.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) in women increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Treatment of Type-2 Diabetes.

Making some lifestyle changes and adopting healthy habits is the first way to control type 2 diabetes, which includes the following methods:

Eat healthy foods include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet that keep your blood sugar level and your body weight normal.

Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should be eaten as it helps to keep your blood sugar level stable.

Exercise regularly, this helps the insulin to work more effectively in the body and also keeps the blood pressure low, which reduces the risk of heart disease.

Do about half an hour of aerobic activity daily. Exercise can also control blood sugar.

By getting blood sugar checked regularly, it can be found out whether the treatment you are using is helping to control type 2 diabetes or whether you need to make some changes in the treatment.

You can get information about how to recognize the initial symptoms of blood sugar with your doctor. They will also help you know which foods are healthy and which foods are not.

Medications for type-2 Diabetes.

However, in some cases sometimes eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly is not enough to reduce blood sugar.

There are many medications that can help control type 2 diabetes. But it is advisable to take it only on the advice of your doctor.

Most types of medicines for type 2 diabetes are available in the form of food tablets or syrups. However, some types of medicines also come in the form of injections.

The following medicines are used for type 2 diabetes:

Metformin: These drugs reduce the level of blood sugar and with the help of these medicines, the body also starts to respond well to insulin.

Alpha-glucoside inhibitors: These drugs help you break down starchy foods in the body, such as inorganic and miglitol.

Sulfonylureas: It helps in making more insulin in the body.

Meglitinides or Glinides: These are short-acting, fast-acting drugs that stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. These include Nateglinide and Repaglinide etc.

Thiazolidinediones: These drugs make you more sensitive to insulin.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: These drugs are used to reduce the level of sugar in the blood, these drugs are not very powerful, such as alogliptin etc.

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist: These drugs reduce digestive power and improve blood sugar levels. Such as albiglutide and dulaglutide.

Sodium-glucose contraceptor-2 inhibitors: With the help of these drugs, the kidneys are prevented from re-absorbing sugar in the blood and the sugar is expelled out of the body through urine.

However, to keep blood sugar under control, one has to start taking insulin in the end. This happens when your body stops making insulin in sufficient quantity by itself, so some drugs have to be taken to compensate for insulin deficiency.

Note: It is advisable to take it only on the advice of your doctor.Do not use any medicine on your own without doctor’s advice.

Diet for Type-2 Diabetes.

If you have type 2 diabetes then diet planning is the most important thing for you. If you decide what quantity you need to take during the day, then you will get a lot of help in controlling blood sugar.

Many people reduce their food intake when they have diabetes. This can cause nutritional deficiency in the body. Keep in mind that controlling sugar does not mean starving. Let’s talk about how to plan your meal when you have type 2 diabetes.

Many people keep their blood sugar under control by exercising medicine and exercising better.


Carbohydrate and starchy foods increase your blood sugar rapidly. The amount of carbohydrates should be very low in food. Eat only two loaves of food. Sometimes a little rice can be taken with it. Try to minimize their quantity. For this, also consult the registered dieter about how much grain you have to eat in a mile.


You should have more protein in your food. Add things like lentils, sprouts to your plate. Eating less bread and rice may not fill your stomach. Take plenty of lentils in their place. This will keep your stomach full and you will feel full.

Fruits and vegetables

Always include one fruit in your meal. Take sufficient quantity of vegetables in food. Eat a rich salad. This will add a good amount of fiber to the body and keep your digestive system healthy, which is very important for you.

If your food intake is high and your appetite does not get lost due to the carbohydrate limit, then also include milk and curd in the food. There is an easy way to control sugar – ‘eat less, eat more frequently’. That is, instead of eating more at one time, keep eating something at small intervals. Due to this, suddenly your blood sugar will not be very high.

For breakfast, take things like lentils, milk, sprouts, salad, eggs. Fruits like Apple, papaya, berries, oranges will be beneficial for you. Have some dry fruits before breakfast too.

Avoid These things:

  • Do not consume full cream milk.
  • Do not take sweets or anything that contains direct sugar.
  • Do not eat potatoes, sweet potatoes.
  • Stay away from junk food.
  • Do not eat fried things.
  • Avoid eating ghee, butter, and greasy food.
  • Avoid Baked Biscuits. If you want to eat bread, use brown bread

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